Book Notes
BOOK NOTES - 2012                                                2011 - 2010 - 2009 - 2008 
Civil Society, Conflict and Violence.  
By Wolfgang Dörner and Regina A. List.  London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic, 2012.  
176 pages.  Hardcover £50.00.  
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This volume offers a detailed conceptual and empirical examination of the relationship between civil society and conflict. The editors argue that the conflict dimension of civil society is grossly downplayed or inadequately addressed in most of the prevalent conceptualizations of civil society and that the ability to deal with conflicts stands at the heart of organized civil society. In the political process, one of civil society’s key functions is said to be not only the expression of genuine interests, but also mediation between them, thus contributing to political decision-making. 

Following a conceptual opening chapter, subsequent chapters draw on comparative, empirical data from the CIVICUS Civil Society Index, examining the different ways violence has been manifested in civil societies, the meaning of violent protest and the impact of security legislation. The book offers a comparison between conflict and post-conflict countries and an analysis of the role of civil society in conflict.

Metaphor and Dialectic in Managing Diversity.  
By Christina Schwabenland.  Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.  
240 pages.  Hardcover £65.00.  
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The diversity of the workforce and the implications for management continue to be the focus of a great deal of interest. This is partly because of the importance and urgency of the issues that diversity entails and also because of a growing recognition that many of the dilemmas of diversity management are not proving amenable to easy solutions. Indeed, recent research demonstrates that Britain and the US are, in many ways, becoming more, rather than less unequal societies. This book suggests that metaphor and dialectic play a powerful role in shaping our understandings of ourselves and each other. It draws on original research in organizations and in management education to explore how we can become more aware of these processes within ourselves and challenge those assumptions and stereotypes that contribute to maintaining people in disadvantaged positions.


Social Policy and Citizenship: The Changing Landscape.
Edited by Adalbert Evers and Anne-Marie Guillemard. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2012 (forthcoming). 416 pages.  Hardcover US $ 79.99.  
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In both Europe and America, the landscape of social policies has undergone fundamental changes in recent decades, especially in endeavors to develop new welfare arrangements. How does this affect citizenship-at-large as defined by the Marshallian triad of personal, democratic, and social rights?

Taking nine European countries as case studies, the contributions analyze the ways that citizenship has changed in key areas such as social security, labor market policies, and social services. Other chapters concentrate on the theoretical and conceptual challenges that result from the interrelation of changing social policies with different notions of citizenship. Trends in welfare reform have become harder to interpret. They are no longer about simple reductions in social services and entitlements, or a decline in social citizenship; the terms of debate have shifted. In a postindustrial world, individuals are afforded more mobility, autonomy, and responsibility. Security is being reexamined in light of the new risks stemming from a worldwide knowledge-based economy.

Behind the diversity of changes there is a unified agenda taking shape, characterized with concepts like activation, social investments, concerns with inclusion, and the strengthening of links between rights and responsibilities. The contributions in this volume represent an insightful look at the debate between the determination to curb social spending and a new model of an activist state ready to make social investments. 

Social Enterprises:  An Organizational Perspective.
Edited by Benjamin Gidron and Yeheskel Hasenfeld.  Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.  
280 pages.  Hardback £65.00.  
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Social enterprises have been a growing phenomenon around the world in the past decade. The authors of this volume argue that they represent a unique type of organization. By combining social goals with a business orientation, both critical for their mission and survival, they represent a breed of organization with two kinds of logic that in the past were not perceived as belonging under the same organizational roof. The business logic, with its focus on competition and private ownership, did not seem a fitting context in which to deal with social issues or problems. These are traditionally dealt with by a service logic that emphasizes a charitable, empathetic orientation. Putting these two orientations together calls for creative organizational solutions, especially if these organizations are to be stable and sustainable. Social Enterprises presents a first attempt to do that. An organizational perspective of social enterprises allows us to analyze issues such as their governing structure, their modes of operation and their marketing strategies, and begins to formulate some theoretical constructs on how these entities can survive and thrive. This volume provides not only a theoretical and empirical basis to examine these issues, but an international perspective as well.

The State of Nonprofit America.  
Edited by Lester M. Salamon. Washington, DC, USA: Brookings Institution Press, 2012. 708 pages.  
Paper US $36.95/£26.69.
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Today, America’s nonprofit organizations seem caught in a force field, buffeted by four impulses—voluntarism, professionalism, civic activism, and commercialism. Too little attention, however, has been paid to the significant tensions among these impulses. Understanding this force field and the factors shaping its dynamics thus becomes central to understanding the future of particular organizations and of the nonprofit sector as a whole.

In this second edition, Lester Salamon and his colleagues offer an overview of the current state of America’s nonprofit sector, examining the forces that are shaping its future and identifying the changes that might be needed. The State of Nonprofit America has been completely revised and updated to reflect changing political realities and the punishing economic climate currently battering the nonprofit sector, which faces significant financial challenges during a time when its services are needed more than ever. The result is a comprehensive analysis of a set of institutions that Alexis de Tocqueville recognized to be "more deserving of our attention” than any other part of the American experiment.

Age of Participation:  Civil Society, Democracy and the New Frontiers of Civic Mobilization.  
By Lorenzo Fioramonti.  London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic, 2012.  
176 pages.  Hardcover £50.00
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The CIVICUS Civil Society Index provides innovative information on civic participation and civil society activism across 20 countries, combining quantitative and qualitative data. This second volume in the CIVICUS Global Study of Civil Society series examines how participation patterns within civil society have evolved over time and how they have affected democracy.

Lorenzo Fioramonti rethinks traditional conceptualizations of civil society, defining it as an ‘arena’ offering a spatial configuration between the state, the market and the family. He argues that civil society is a fundamentally dynamic and continuously evolving phenomenon that cannot be encapsulated into pre-conceived categories. 

The book pays attention to the different components of participation, including political mobilization, demonstrations and protests, public gatherings and membership of social movements, in the light of recent uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa but also the global economic crisis. Use of the CSI data allows a consistent and comparative analysis of participatory democracy at work across countries and regions.

Managing Nonprofit Organizations.  
By Mary Tschirhart and Wolf Bielefeld.  Hoboken, NJ, USA:  Jossey-Bass, 2012.
512 pages.  Hardcover US $70.00.
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This essential resource offers an overall understanding of nonprofits based on both the academic literature and practitioner experience. It shows how to lead, manage, govern, and structure effective and ethical nonprofit organizations. Managing Nonprofit Organizations reveals what it takes to be entrepreneurial and collaborative, formulate successful strategies, assess performance, manage change, acquire resources, be a responsible financial steward, and design and implement solid marketing and communication plans. 


Peacebuilding through Community-Based NGOs: Paradoxes and Possibilities.  
By Max Stephenson and Laura Zanotti.  Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press, 2012.  
128 pages.  Cost: Cloth US $75, Paper US $24.95; E-Book US $19.99.  

Peacebuilding Through Community-Based NGOs explores the contested but increasingly relevant role nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) play in processes aimed at bringing about international peace and security and in the invention of alternatives for resolving conflict. 

Through case studies of Partners In Health (Haiti), Women in Black (Serbia), and the Community Foundation for Northern Ireland highlight the range of ways these organizations are involved in post-conflict social reconstruction efforts and with whom and for what purposes they interact as they do so. The authors argue for analyses that take into account the rich mosaic that is the civil society sector rather than treating all of these entities with one broad brush. At once a celebration and a critique, this book provides guidance for those seeking to understand the complexities and potential of the civil society sector for facilitating social justice and transformation.

Higher Education and Civic Engagement: Comparative Perspectives.  
Edited by Lorraine McIlrath, Ann Lyons and Ronaldo Munck.  Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. 288 pages.  Cost: Hardback £57.50.  
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Higher Education and Civic Engagement provides an original and challenging contribution to contemporary debates on the civic purpose of higher education, exploring its manifestations through the practices of teaching and research. The chapters offer critical perspectives on the role of higher education institutions in terms of realizing civic missions, especially in current global market conditions.


Third Sector Organisations and Organising: Maps and Short Stories.  
By Wendy Earles and Robyn Lynn.  Bremen, Germany: Europäischer Hochschulverlag, 2012.  
208 pages.  Cost: Paperback    60.00.  
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Over the past few decades there has been considerable transformation of the organisational arrangements for public service provision and advocacy across most Western democracies, not least in Australia. Waves of ideologically driven reforms have reshaped organisations, ways of organising and systems, particularly those in the third sector. Each wave has produced specific synergies and contradictions that contribute to the need for further reshaping. As artifacts, local organisations, ways of organising and systems hold historic meaning that can guide practitioners as they seek to understand past change, transverse existing landscapes, question the utility and soundness of current meaning, and seek to create new landscapes that respond to different value-sets. The studies presented here were undertaken by the authors over two decades in partnership with local practitioners to respond to their expressed need for new maps and compasses to understand and transverse the rapidly changing organisational landscapes in which they practice. The authors draw on practitioners’ lived experiences of micro-change in particular sites to construct synthesised stories, develop organisational typologies, articulate principles and logics of organising, and construct paradigmatic maps. The book contains ten chapters, representing distinct yet connected maps and stories. They are presented in the sequence that empirical endeavours occurred and ideas emerged. They are also situated in specific places and in distinct policy fields, and are efforts at understanding the multiple natures of distinct parts of the third sector.

The book covers considerable terrain as the flow of thought/inquiry changes from a focus on form/behaviour through process/culture to being/consciousness, at all times holding a systemic lens/space. The focus also moves from the transactional to the transformative, and the action orientation manifests itself in appreciative and learning methodologies. There is a rupture at which point the maps and stories shift from potentially becoming enslaved in chronicling ‘disaster’ and wallowing in critique, to instead seeking a positive way forward. The chapters individually and collectively address how organisations and organising have changed, and what those experiences of change might tell us about our positioning for future change – a priority for any research on sustainable social change and the third sector.

State, Society and the Market in Contemporary Vietnam:  Property, Power and Values.
Edited by Hue-Tam Ho Tai and Mark Sidel. London, UK: Routledge, 2012.  
252 pages.  Hardback, US $ 145.00.
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Lively debates around property, access to resources, legal rights, and the protection of livelihoods have unfolded in Vietnam since the economic reforms of 1986. Known as Doi Moi (changing to the new), these have gradually transformed the country from a socialist state to a society in which a communist party presides over a neoliberal economy. 

By exploring the complex relationship between property, the state, society, and the market, this book demonstrates how both developmental issues and state-society relations in Vietnam can be explored through the prism of property relations and property rights. The essays in this collection demonstrate how negotiations over property are deeply enmeshed with dynamics of state formation, and covers debates over the role of the state and its relationship to various levels of society, the intrusion of global forces into the lives of marginalized communities and individuals, and how community norms and standards shape and reshape national policy and laws.

Fair Trade Organizations and Social Enterprise: Social Innovation through Hybrid Organization Models.
By Benjamin Huybrechts. New York & London: Routledge, 2012.
240 Pages. Hardback $125.00.
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For several decades, social enterprises have been pioneers in the conception and implementation of a pathbreaking social innovation: Fair Trade (FT). Fair Trade Social Enterprises have created a movement which has challenged mainstream trading practices and offered development opportunities for disadvantaged producer groups in the South. Starting from a niche market aimed at convinced customers, FT has expanded and entered mainstream retailing outlets, growing in visibility and market share, while simultaneously experiencing diversification of its organization models. While pioneer Fair Trade Social Enterprises in the early years were largely nonprofit organizations relying on voluntary work, they have become increasingly diversified in terms of legal forms, governance models and organizational practices. These diversified models seem to reflect the hybrid nature of FT itself, through different ways of combining a commercial activity (trading of FT products), a social mission (support to producers), and an explicit or implicit political message (often expressed through education and advocacy). 

Based on the study of Fair Trade Social Enterprises across Europe, this book builds a typology of organization models for FT. Author Benjamin Huybrechts further examines how the different organization models combine the economic, social, and political dimensions of FT, and how they manage the possible tensions between these dimensions. Fair Trade Organizations and Social Enterprise proposes a range of theoretical approaches to interpret the diversity of Fair Trade Social Enterprises and offers concrete avenues for managing social enterprises and hybrid organizations in general. 

Representations of Global Poverty: Aid, Development and International NGOs.
By Nandita Dogra. London, UK: I.B.Tauris, 2012.
256 Pages. Hardback UK £54.50.
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Through the efforts of increasingly media-aware NGOs, people in the west are bombarded with images of poverty and inequality in the developing world. Representations of Poverty is a comprehensive study of the communications and imagery used by international NGOs to represent the developing world. In this book, Nandita Dogra examines the full cycle of representation - integrating analyses of the public messages of international development NGOs in the UK with the views of their staff and audiences. Exploring the Europeanised discourses inherent in appeals to this notion of a ‘common humanity’, she argues for a greater acknowledgment of NGOs as significant mediating institutions which can expand understandings of global inequalities and their historical causation.

Dialogues in Critical Management Studies: The Third Sector.
Edited by Richard Hull, Jane Gibbon, Oana Branzei and Helen Haugh. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2011. 318 Pages. Hardback UK £72.95.
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The Third Sector is of increasing economic and political interest but has been relatively ignored by Critical Management Studies. The Sector includes charities and a range of organisations such as non-governmental, nonprofit, voluntary and community, but also those trading for a surplus but with prominent social commitments, such as housing associations, credit unions, worker or consumer co-operatives and social enterprises. This book presents cutting-edge international research from a variety of critical perspectives. The chapters include case studies from Japan, South Africa, Canada, Denmark, France, Wales and England, as well as a number of theoretically-based explorations of key issues in the analysis of the Third Sector. The chapters have been developed from presentations and lively discussion at the Critical Management Studies Workshop, Montreal, August 2010. "DCMS” is an innovative series applying Critical Management Studies to tightly specified topics. Each chapter is followed by a 1,000 word Commentary from a fellow contributor to the volume, and each volume is the product of a collaborative and developmental workshop.


The Global Right Wing and the Clash of World Politics.
By Clifford Bob. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
240 Pages. Paperback  US $26.99.
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This book is an account of transnational advocacy, not by environmental and rights groups, but by conservative activists. Mobilizing around diverse issues, these networks challenge progressive foes across borders and within institutions. In these globalized battles, opponents struggle as much to advance their own causes as to destroy their rivals. Deploying exclusionary strategies, negative tactics and dissuasive ideas, they aim both to make and unmake policy. In this work, Clifford Bob chronicles combat over homosexuality and gun control in the UN, the Americas, Europe and elsewhere. He investigates the ‘Baptist-burqa’ network of conservative believers attacking gay rights, and the global gun coalition blasting efforts to control firearms. Bob draws critical conclusions about norms, activists and institutions, and his broad findings extend beyond the culture wars.   

The Muslim World in the 21st Century: Space, Power, and Human Development.
Edited by Samiul Hasan. New York: Springer, 2012.
363 Pages. Hardcover US $189.
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Islam is not only a religion, but also a culture, tradition, and civilization. There are currently 1.5 billion people in the world who identify themselves as Muslim. Two thirds of the worldwide Muslim population, i.e. approximately a billion people, live in forty-eight Muslim majority countries (MMC) in the world- all of which except one are in Africa and Asia. Of these MMCs in Africa and Asia, only twelve (inhabited by about 165 million people) have ever achieved a high score on the Human Development Index (HDI), the index that measures life expectancy at birth, education and standard of living and ranks how "developed" a country is. This means that the majority of the world's Muslim population lives in poverty with low or medium level of human development. The contributions to this volume attempt to determine why this is. They explore the influence of environment, space, and power on human development. The result is a complex, interdisciplinary study of all MMCs in Africa and Asia.  It offers new insights into the current state of the Muslim World, and provides a theoretical framework for studying human development from an interdisciplinary social, cultural, economic, environmental, political, and religious perspective, which will be applicable to regional and cultural studies of space and power in other regions of the world. 
Citizens in Europe: Civic Activism and the Community Democratic Experiment.  
By Giovanni Moro.  New York: Springer, 2012. 
Pages 210.  Hardback US $139.00.
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In the community-building process, citizens are the most invoked and feared, but at the same time the least known subject. This lack of knowledge nourishes the citizens detachment from the European Union and itself emerged in well known cases such as the French and Dutch referenda on the Constitutional Treaty or the public concern towards the EU policy on immigration. This gap is true especially for active citizenship organizations operating in the European policy making, not only in Brussels, but also and above all at national and local levels. This book is aimed at filling this knowledge gap.  The book is divided into two parts.  The first part of the book focuses on the way in which the literature on EU governance and citizenship and on participatory democracy deals with citizen activism in public policy making.  The second part discusses a number of empirical research projects on civic activism in Europe. This book aims, on the one hand, to bridge the academic debate to more policy oriented debates in which active citizenship organizations and policy makers are involved; and, on the other hand, to bridge theoretical discussion of the nature of the EU with the empirical literature based on the study of civic activism in Europe and at the national level. The distinctiveness of the book is that it tries to overcome both the "methodological nationalism" that affects the research and public debate on the EU, the normative attitude of most part of European studies in favor of an approach aimed at describing phenomena, and the habit of dealing with civic associations in Europe by referring only to the "Brussels Civil Society."    Topics of interest dealt in the book include: an analysis of the EU approach to citizens organizations; the role of citizens organizations in EU policy making; the rights of European active citizenship and their practice; the question of representativeness of civic organizations; empirical research projects on active citizenship in Europe.
Peddlers of Information: Indian Non-governmental Organizations in the Information Age.
By Tanya Jakimow. Sterling, Virginia: Kumarian Press, 2012.
216 Pages. Hardback US$75.00; Paperback US $ 24.95; e-book US $ 19.99.
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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are widely heralded as an opportunity for the poor to have greater access to information that can help them escape poverty. ICTs also provide local NGOs that work with the poor access to knowledge that can guide them in implementing better development programs. Such ideas reflect long-held notions about the role of knowledge provision as a tool for development. But as author Tanya Jakimow shows, the consequences of the "information age" are often unintended and deviate greatly from our image of an interconnected, modern world. Not only do most people remain largely excluded from ICTs, but when they do engage with these technologies, they do so in unforeseen ways. Peddlers of Information shows how local NGOs in rural India are actually using these technologies-particularly the internet-and the implications this has had for development work and ideas about poverty.  

Voluntarism in the Arab Region.
By Amani Kandil. Cairo, Egypt: The Arab Network for NGOs (Shabaka), 2012.  
The recent surge of political revolutions in the Arab region known as "the Arab spring" has also spurred an "unprecedented blossoming" of NGOs and voluntary initiatives that have transcended the institutional and organizational boundaries of Civil Society. Dr. Amani Kandil's report, published simultaneously with the release of the UN report "The State of Voluntarism Worldwide," marks the tenth annual publication of studies on NGOs and the "act of voluntarism" throughout the Arab region. This initiative, which began as a "reckless adventure" at a time when data and statistics on this topic were scarce, is now enriched by an accumulation of knowledge and experience over the years.  This report aims to identify the voluntary practices that are closely tied to the Arab culture and undertakes a critical revision of the concept of voluntarism, its dimensions and components within specific social, economic and political contexts. The report grants special attention to the views of the Arab youth and their voluntary initiatives both within and outside of Civil Society Organizations and NGOs, and monitors how the huge developments in information technology and social media have interacted with their voluntary trends. Moreover, the report aims to present a model of monitoring and analyzing voluntarism that can be applied in a global context, and encourages the use of surveys and scientific research to inform the design of future policies that will promote and enhance voluntarism throughout the Arab region.  

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