Book Notes - 2008
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From Charity to Social Change. Trends in Arab Philanthropy. Edited by Barbara Ibrahim and Dina H. Sherif. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2008. Paperback. 192 pp. Cost: US$29.95, LE 100.00. To order:

Persistent societal problems and wealth creation in the Arab region are driving a new generation of actors to commit their resources for the greater public welfare. Widely known as philanthropy, voluntary contributions to causes that serve a public good are a longstanding and important aspect of cultures in the Arab region. What is of particular interest today is the proliferation of ways in which this private giving is being channeled into new institutional forms. In significant ways, some local philanthropy is becoming more strategic in its aims—by which is meant utilizing resources effectively to address the underlying causes of important social problems.
Through an examination of philanthropic trends in eight key Middle Eastern countries, this book seeks to shed light on the forms of institutionalized giving that currently exist, as well as to provide recommendations for how charitable contributions can be most effective as vehicles of future social change. Drawing on data collected from endowed corporate foundations, public-private partnerships between business leaders and governmental agencies, and small-scale community-based organizations, this study marks the first attempt to map the dynamic contemporary landscape of philanthropy in the Arab region.

The Charities Aid Foundation Grant Programme: Learning from capacity building and lessons for other funders
. By Chris Cornforth, Jill Mordaunt, Mike Aiken and Shirley Otto. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Business School, 2008. 62 pp. To download:

Building the capacity of the voluntary and community sector (VCS) is a ‘hot’ topic. A major driver is the government agenda to engage the VCS in the delivery of public services, and the subsequent development of a number of policies aimed at improving the capacity of the sector to do this. On the ground many small and medium-sized organisations are facing a rapidly changing and increasingly competitive environment where funding is often harder to secure. As a result there is increased pressure to improve their capacity in order to survive and prosper. Yet our understanding of what makes for effective capacity building is poorly developed. 
This report aims to help fill that gap. It presents the results of research on the Charities Aid Foundation (CAF) Grant Programme. The programme aims to develop the capacity of small to medium-size charitable organisations through the provision of consultancy and financial support. The report analyses both the strengths and challenges of CAF’s approach to capacity building and draws out wider lessons for other grantmakers, funders and infra-structure bodies that engage in similar forms of capacity building.

The Search for Social Entrepreneurship. By Paul C. Light. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2008. 192 pp. Cloth $46.95; Paperback $26.95. Order:

Research on social entrepreneurship is finally catching up to its rapidly growing potential. In The Search for Social Entrepreneurship, Paul Light explores this surge of interest to establish the state of knowledge on this growing phenomenon and suggest directions for future research. Light begins by outlining the debate on how to define social entrepreneurship, a concept often cited and lauded but not necessarily understood. A very elemental definition would note that it involves individuals, groups, networks, or organizations seeking sustainable change via new ideas on how governments, nonprofits, and businesses can address significant social problems. That leaves plenty of gaps, however, and without adequate agreement on what the term means, we cannot measure it effectively. The unsatisfying results are apple-to-orange comparisons that make replication and further research difficult.
The subsequent section examines the four main components of social entrepreneurship: ideas, opportunities, organizations, and the entrepreneurs themselves. The copious information available about each has yet to be mined for lessons on making social entrepreneurship a success. The third section draws on Light’s original survey research on 131 high-performing nonprofits, exploring how they differ across the four key components. The fourth and final section offers recommendations for future action and research in this burgeoning field.

Comparative Third Sector Governance in Asia: Structure, Process, and Political Economy
Edited by Samiul Hasan and Jenny Onyx. New York, NY: Springer, 2008. Hardcover. 341 pp. Cost: US $89.95. To order: ISTR Members receive 25% discount (use promocode when ordering).

Non-profit organizations, NGOs and other third sector organizations are increasingly playing a central role in achieving and sustaining a prosperous economy and a just civil society in countries around the world. While their importance is widely acknowledged, their sustainability is not guaranteed and depends to a large extent on effectiveness and accountability of their governance.

In Europe and North America, the governance of these organizations (setting directions and strategies; identifying and ensuring type and quality of goods and services; defining and maintaining relations among the stakeholders; relating the organization to its wider society) is generally seen as the role of the board of directors or the governing board. In of other parts of the world, specifically Asia, not much is known about the organization and running of these groups.

The book -- the first of its kind -- establishes new theory and knowledge in the area of third sector organizations (TSOs) in Asia. The main purpose of this book is to draw the attention of Asia's TSOs on the importance of good governance. It documents variety of approaches, and identifies socio-cultural, economic, and political dynamics and impacts of different models of TSO governance. The combined information from the contributions in this work will ensure the sustainability of TSOs throughout Asia.

Phïlånthrøpy în Êùrõpe: A Rich Past, A Promising Future
 Norine MacDonald and Luc Tayart de Borms, editors. London: Alliance Publishing Trust, 2008. Softcover.  304 pp. To order: or

Numerous books have been published on American philanthropy B its origins, its heroes, its achievements and its shortcomings.  But philanthropy in Europe has been largely neglected. This book will start to fill this gap.

Philanthropy in Europe is rooted in a rich past and is looking to a promising future.  This book, comprising profiles and essays, showcases the diversity of philanthropic impulses, aleitmotif that has fuelled the dynamism of the sector throughout history.  This dynamism continues today as it follows – and shapes – the contours of Europe’s evolving social, political and economic fabric. 

Throughout history, foundations have played a pivotal role in developing and strengthening European societies.  By using a storytelling lens, this book explores how philanthropy has found its place in modern societies in different ways.

It also introduces several thinkers in the field who offer valuable insights into the past, present and future of the sector.  The authors take stock of the accomplishments of foundations, and also outline some of the challenges facing the sector—from without and from within.  For example, the book makes a strong case for facilitating the sector’s ability to participate effectively within the Single Market by implementing a European foundation statute.  The authors also argue for foundations to become more European and more global, while working in closer partnership.

Essays include:

  • The rich history of philanthropy in Turkey: a paradox of tradition and modernity
  • Encouraging change:  European foundations funding research
  • European foundations’ support for civil society: a means to an end or an end in itself?
  • Foundations and policy influence in Europe
  • Engaged philanthropy and market-based solutions
  • The importance of there being a European foundation statue

Contributors include Filiz Bikmen, Anna Cantaluppi, Caroline Hartnell, Diana Leat, Wilhem Krull, Maximilian Martin, Dianna Rienstra, Gerry Salole, Hildy Simmons, Ant ó nio Jos é Teixeira, Gottfried Wagner, and David Watkiss.

Philanthrocapitalism: Old Myths, New Realities. By Michael Edwards. (This article was first published on 14 November 2008)

Michael Edwards's book on business-led philanthropy, "Just Another Emperor?", launched a vigorous public debate across the non-profit sector and beyond. Now, in an environment transformed by the global financial crisis, he reviews the arguments the book provoked, responds to critics, and reaffirms the importance of a "civil-society-strong" perspective in face of "a tsunami of pro-business thinking."

International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing
. Adrian Sargeant, editor. Annual Subscription Rate: $165.00 / ,100. Information and to

The International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing (NVSM) provides an international forum for peer-reviewed papers and case studies on the latest techniques, thinking and best practice in marketing for the not-for-profit sector. 

Its objective is to provide a forum for the publication of refereed papers and practice notes which are of direct relevance to the practitioner while meeting the highest standards of intellectual rigour.

In so doing, the Journal seeks to encourage communication and the sharing of expertise between all those concerned with nonprofit marketing, including those who are involved with fundraising and marketing, public relations, advertising and communications, IT and database management, academics and consultants to the sector.

The main sectors covered by the International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing are: goods and services marketing; fundraising; advertising and promotion; branding and positioning; campaigns and lobbying; ethics and fundraising; information technology and database management; sponsorship; public relations; and events management.

With an international Editorial Board representing members from top universities in the field, NVSM features in-depth academic research into the voluntary sector, while also covering the latest techniques, ideas and developments used by marketers and fundraisers.  Papers, briefings, case studies and reviews are welcome for publication.

Revista Española del Tercer Sector
 No 9 Special Issue 2008. Madrid: Fundación Luis Vives. To subscribe: Cost: Yearly subscription 25i; Single issue 15i

The current issue, 9, of the Spanish Journal of the Third Sector is a regular issue of the year 2008, since readers can access it not only in Spanish. But, at the same time, it is also a special issue, in English, in order to reach the academic world and international experts in a series of papers that allow for better insight into the Journal as it is today, which, as is known, is in its third year of progress. It is an open issue, regarding topics in which there are papers concerning the three outlooks of the Journal, the Spanish perspective, the European perspective and the Latin-American perspective, the two latter ones being dealt with in the Panorama section. On the other hand, of the five papers, three have been published in earlier issues of the Journal (Luis Aranguren, Darío Rodríguez and Soledad Quezada and Serge Paugam); the new work is by Vicente Marbán and Rodríguez Cabrero and Van der Ploeg.

The Contributions section has three articles. First, "A Panoramic View of the Social Third Sector in Spain: Environment, Development, Social Research and Challenges,” by Vicente Marbán and Gregorio Rodríguez Cabrero, which provides the reader with a recent historical portrait of social action NGO=s, their development, basic challenges and progress in the social research in this area whose growth has walked hand-in-hand to the development of the Welfare State in Spain.

The second paper, by Luis Aranguren, analyses the basic problems in the training of managers and staff in the Third Sector. In his paper, "Another Training is Possible,” he holds that training in the Third Sector, especially the Social Third Sector, should contribute to the obtaining of three goals at the same time: change in mentality, change and improvements in internal organization and changes in the context of a global, complex world with greater social risks. Internal quality and external transformation are two variables linked to training in the Third Sector.

Finally, the third paper has been produced by Serge Paugam, "How does Poverty appear in European Societies Today?”  This paper analyses the social nature of poverty in Welfare States in the European Union, both in its quantitative dimension as well as, and primarily, qualitatively. Social and institutional construction of poverty from its historical roots in social assistance, the typology of poverty (inherited, reproducible, new poverty) as well as its perception by the poor people themselves are the object of study in a reality where NGO=s have an important role of social intervention.

The Panorama section includes two papers. First an article by Professor Van der Ploeg, "The Legal Regulations of the Third Sector in Europe,” which analyses the legal framework for this sector, private, volunteer and non-distributor of benefits (not including co-operatives), the differences in an eleven country sample and the difficulties around harmonization in the general admitted context of recognizing the legal entity of NGO=s and equal treatment for all. An admittedly diverse world searching for ways for a certain legal harmonization.

The second paper, by Darío Rodríguez Mansilla and Soledad Quezada y Menares, (Chile): "Culture in Organizations in the Chilean Third Sector,” analyses the concept of organizational culture as a result of the tradition and memory of  NGO=s, of their achievements and difficulties. There are two different social entities, altruistic and mutualities and the organizational change is analyzed from four case types or significant organizations in Chile which have tried to integrate their missions and objectives along with a professional change with a view to social and economic efficiency in the Chilean Third Sector.

In the section Notes and Contributions, we have included a query to four European NGO networks, which have been asked for their opinion on the articulation of the Third Sector in Europe with regards to the developing of social policies in the EU. The organizations were: EAPN, AGE, SEE and EDF, widespread organizations and with a recognized role in the articulation of volunteer organizations in the European social field.

We have also included in this issue both abstracts and key words of the articles published in the Journal since its inception as well as a Directory of Social Organizations in the Social Third Sector in Spain. The purpose of this directory is to allow the foreign reader to have a selective, but quite comprehensive, map of the world of social organizations in Spain, establishing a difference between the ones with a general scope of action and those devoted to specific sectors or activities. A website has been included for all of them.

In closing, Issue 9 ends with an extensive bibliographical selection of national and foreign papers referring back to the last five years.

Nonprofits and Evaluation: New Directions for Evaluation 119
. Edited by Joanne G. Carman and Kimberly A. Fredericks. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008.  Paperback. 128 pp. Cost: US$29. To

Explore the relationships between nonprofits, funders, and evaluation and how recent trends and developments in the philanthropic and government sectors have raised expectations for these groups.  With contributions by those leading the charge to improve nonprofit evaluation, this volume demonstrates how nonprofits can succeed by being resourceful, investing in their organizational capacity to do evaluation, and creating an environment that supports and facilitates organizational learning.

In recent years, many have observed that nonprofit organizations are under increasing pressure to demonstrate their effectiveness and document their program outcomes, as the current political and funding environment continues to stress the importance of accountability and measuring performance. Foundations, government agencies, and other funders are asking nonprofit organizations for more evaluation and performance measurement data. Yet, most nonprofit organizations continue to struggle with these demands, and many lack the capacity to implement evaluation and performance measurement in comprehensive or meaningful ways.

Economie sociale & Économie publique Series. Edited by CIRIEC under the direction of Bernard Enjolras

This Social Economy & Public Economy series brings together books and monographs with a common focus: the analysis of the economic activities of formal and informal organisations that aim to serve the "public/general interest" or broad "common welfare" of their societies. Diverse initiatives and a wide variety of organisational forms are concerned: public or private nonprofit organisations and services, social services, public utilities, regulatory rules and actions, public enterprises, local community and regional economic development bodies, cooperatives, mutualist enterprises, etc. The series aims to promote a more scientific, and in-depth international and comparative understanding of this type of research that has been rapidly expanding in recent years. The series will reflect about these developments and through its dissemination, it will also support the increasing inter-disciplinarity and multi-disciplinarity of much of this recent research (e.g. economics, sociology, political science, law, policy evaluation and policy analysis, etc.)

Gouvernance et intérêt général dans les services sociaux et de santé
 Brussels, Bern, Berlin, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Oxford, Wien: Peter Lang S.A., 2008. 265 pp. Cost: € 32.90 / sFr. 51.- / €* 35.20 / €** 36.20 / £ 24.70 / US$ 50.95. To order:

This book is the first in the series Economie sociale & Économie publique and is only available in French.

Les services sociaux et de santé sont aujourd'hui au coeur de nos préoccupations. Leur gouvernance et leurs modes de fourniture, de réglementation et de financement connaissent de nombreux bouleversements, que ce soit dans des pays qui essaient d'atteindre des niveaux de prestations décents malgré la faiblesse des ressources disponibles ou dans des économies plus riches, confrontées à une remise en cause de la cohésion sociale et à des défis majeurs comme par exemple le vieillissement des populations.

En recourant à la comparaison internationale, les onze contributions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage mettent en évidence, les mutations en cours touchant les régimes de gouvernance dans le champ des services sociaux et de santé, ainsi que les enjeux de ces mutations. Le premier chapitre propose un cadre d'analyse théorique autour du concept de régime de gouvernance. Les neuf contributions qui suivent apportent des éclairages diversifiés à travers une perspective nationale, sectorielle ou territoriale et analysent ainsi, successivement, plusieurs secteurs au Québec, en Italie, au Venezuela, en Belgique, en France, en Slovénie et au Royaume-Uni.

The Dilemmas of Development Work
. By Paul Hoggett, Marjorie Mayo and Chris Miller. Bristol, UK, Policy Press: 2008. 208 pp. Paperback ,19.19, Hardback ,52.00. To

This book explores the ways in which front-line professionals, working with communities, identify and address the dilemmas inherent in the current policy context. Social development work takes place in the grey area between government and the voluntary and community sectors. 
Drawing upon original material, the authors examine:
A how 'community engagement' workers negotiate the ethical and emotional challenges they face;
A how they work through problems of community representation at interpersonal and team levels;
A how they manage the conflicting roles of local activist and paid worker;
A what role colleagues, management and others play when responding to such challenges.

The Dilemmas of Development Work reconnects to, and updates, an important tradition in social policy which explores the dilemmas of 'street-level' work. It draws on contemporary political theory and current debates concerning the modernisation of governance and psycho-social perspectives on identity, values and agency.

A Dictionary of Nonprofit Terms & ConceptsBy David Horton Smith, Robert A. Stebbins and Michael A. Dover. Bloomington & Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press: 2006. Hardcover. 360 pp. Cost: US$35. To order:

This reference work defines more than 1,200 terms and concepts that have been found useful in past research and theory on the nonprofit sector. The entries reflect the importance of associations, citizen participation, philanthropy, voluntary action, nonprofit management, volunteer administration, leisure, and political activities of nonprofits. They also reflect a concern for the wider range of useful general concepts in theory and research that bear on the nonprofit sector and its manifestations in the United States and elsewhere. This dictionary supplies some of the necessary foundational work on the road toward a general theory of the nonprofit sector.

Other important sets of definitions included in the Dictionary are volunteers, religion, and law, as well as a set of the most general concepts in the field of Voluntary/Nonprofit/Third/Civil-Society Sector Research.  Also included are almost 1700 references to the research literature in its 68 page Bibliography, grounding all of its contents and definitions in that literature.

Public Money & Management: Integrating Theory and Practice in Public Management
 Andrew Gray, editor. 6 issues per year. Information and to

Public Money & Management is a popular review of policy and management issues in the public service and regulated industries. Authoritative and independent, the journal is essential reading for public sector managers and consultants, academics and students with interests in politics, public policy and management, economics and government. Public Money & Management publishes articles which contribute new knowledge as a basis for policy or management improvements, or which reflect on evidence from public service management and finance in order to suggest topics for research.

Public Money & Management has a multidisciplinary and international audience and publishes articles which contribute new knowledge as a basis for policy or management improvements, or which reflect on evidence from public service management and finance. The journal does not accept literature reviews.

Readership include officials in all types of public service organizations; academics; consultants and advisers working with the public services; voluntary (third) sector organizations delivering public services; politicians; journalists; and students on both academic and professional courses

The Nonprofit Career Guide: How to Land a Job that Makes a Difference
. By Shelly Cryer. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance, in collaboration with American Humanics. 300 pp. Softcover. Cost: US$16.95. To order:

Nonprofits need talented, creative people with all types of skills and experiences. The Nonprofit Career Guide will help you find the best opportunity for you and your interests.

This hands-on guide is filled with practical advice from real people working at all levels of diverse nonprofits. In detailed profiles, you=ll find out what their work is like, the career paths they followed, and what they look for when hiring new staff.

Besides getting a sense of the scope and range of work opportunities, you=ll find the most up-to-date information on how to:
    * Prepare for a nonprofit career
    * Conduct targeted job searches and network effectively
    * Handle interviews with aplomb
    * Write persuasive cover letters and stellar resumes
    * Negotiate a competitive compensation package

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